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Introduction to Car Park Impulse Ventilation

Introduction to Car Park Impulse Ventilation

Description

The ventilation of car parks is essential for removing vehicle exhaust fumes containing harmful pollutants. Some of these pollutants include Carbon Monoxide (CO), Nitrous Oxides (NOX), Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) and heavy metal compounds.
The most significant development in car park ventilation design has been the introduction of Impulse Ventilation. It is an innovative alternative to traditional systems and provides a number of significant benefits. An Impulse Ventilation System is based on a number of small high velocity ‘JetVent Fans’ that either replace traditional distribution ductwork in closed car parks or increase cross-flow ventilation in open car parks.
In addition to removing pollutants, the ventilation systems may also provide assistance to fire fighters by either limiting the spread of smoke in the event of a fire or clearing smoke after the fire is extinguished. Impulse Ventilation y originated in Europe and has been widely used around the world for both car park ventilation and smoke management control systems. The JetVent Impulse ventilation system is being installed to increase the efficiency of car parks through out Australia, New Zealand and South East Asia.
Industry award winner
The JetVent Digital EC was presented with the 2012 ARBS Industry Product Excellence Award in recognition of it’s simplicity, energy efficiency and its ability to adapt to most car parks. The award was also confirmation of Fantech’s commitment to innovation, continuous improvement and its drive to develop innovative cost effective solutions.
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How it works
JetVent Fans operate on well proven longitudinal tunnel ventilation principles.The fans produce a high velocity jetof air, in turn moving a larger quantityof air surrounding the fan through a process known as entrainment. The amount of air entrained by a single fan increases with the velocity and the quantity of air being discharged by the fan. These characteristics directly relate to the thrust rating of the fan, which is measured in Newtons (N).

Figures 1(a) and 1(b) show the difference in principle between the ventilation systems.
Conventional ducted system Figure 1 (a). Conventional ducted ventilation system
Advantages
  • Largely eliminates the need for air distribution ductwork within the car park.
  • The mechanical supply and exhaust systems have less resistance and therefore require smaller fans that consume less power.
  • Ventilation risers and plant rooms reduce in size and quantity, making the car park more open and possibly yielding additional car park spaces.
  • Increasing the number of control zones in the car park maybe possible. This can increase the energy efficiency of the system over and above the best ducted car park ventilation systems.
  • Impulse system
    • Great potential for reduced excavation and construction costs. System is small in vertical profile and the placement of fans can be very flexible resulting in lower floor-to-ceiling heights.
    Figure 1 (b). Impulse ventilation system
    Fantech offers an intelligent, tailored solution package that includes:
    Fan Specifications
    The capacity of a single fan increases with its thrust rating. All JetVent car park fans are rated according to this in Newtons (N) of thrust.
    All JetVent Fan types are tested to the following Standards:
  • Thrust performance based on tests to BS848: Part 10:1999.
  • Noise data based on tests to BS848: Part 2:1985.
  • Axial and Centrifugal units tested for smoke spill requirements as outlined in AS4429:1999.
  • JetVent or Impulse fan Figure 2.Workings of a JetVent or Impulse fan
    JetVent - Car Park Ventilation - Video
    System Layouts & Applications
    Assisted Natural Flow/Augmented Ducted System

    Where supply and exhaust air outlets are a large distance apart (more than 40m), there must be provisions to ensure air moves evenly across the width of the carpark. JetVent Fans can be used to maintain constant air movement in these car parks to remove the effects of air stagnation and the resulting build up of pollutants. In large open car parks, JetVent Fans can be used to create a large pressure difference between supply and exhaust, hence boosting air flow in and out of the car park as shown in Figure 3.

    Impulse system Figure 3. Assisted natural system
    Linear flow

    A linear flow system uses JetVent Fans pointing in the same general direction to move air from one end of a car park to the other. This system is similar to a traditional mechanically ducted system, the main difference is that the JetVent Fans direct air flow from a single supply point to a single exhaust point.


    For this scheme to work effectively, the exhaust and supply points should be located on opposing ends of the car park across its longest dimensions (refer to Figure 4). If this is not the case, units arranged for circular mixing may be a better solution

    JetVent Linear Flow System Figure 4. Linear flow system
    Circular mixing

    JetVent Fans can be positioned around the car park to generate air movement in a circular pattern. The result is that air gets mixed and stirred throughout the entire area, which provides greater dilution of pollutants within the car park. Figure 5 gives an example of this system layout and shows the direction of air flow from supply to exhaust.


    Circular mixing is suitable for smaller car parks where the length and width of the car park is less than 50m. This system also provides added flexibility when positioning supply and exhaust points. Unlike a linear flow system, a circular mixing system does not require exhaust and supply points to be on opposite sides of the car park.

    Impulse system Figure 5. Circular mixing system

    Elta Group